SSP Technology and Testimonials!
Effective teaching of systematic phonics (including orthographically mapped high-frequency words) for the neurodiverse classroom.
And the children LOVE it!
Children learn phonics and 'exception/high-frequency words' with your classroom 'reading teacher' partner - thorough technology! Constrained abilities consist of a limited number of items and thus the 100 or so phoneme to grapheme correspondences used within the 4 Code Levels, and the 400+ high-frequency words (7 duck levels) can be mastered within a relatively short time frame, with good phonemic awareness (developed in the first 2 weeks of Reception, within Phase 1).
Use the school version of the ICRWY app and also the Spelling Piano app for tablets in order to offer differentiated instruction. Teacher-led instruction for these elements is not an effective use of teacher time; too many children will not achieve mastery as quickly as possible. Students are all different, with different needs.
This technology is specially designed for our neurodiverse learners (ADHD, ASD, Dyslexia etc)
The aim of instruction is to achieve ‘mastery’ of these constrained skills in a short period of time so that learners can engage deeply and fluidly in intentional, imaginative reading and writing practices. When SSP technology is used teachers have more time to offer 1:1 support to those who need it and to spend more time working on unconstrained skills; meaning-based skills such as oral language, vocabulary, comprehension, composition and critical thinking skills.
My technology and resources are created so that the burden of the teaching of these constrained skills is reduced. As children are more engaged, and time used productively, behaviour management will also be less challenging. Children who are interested and working just above their skill level (so challenged) are intrinsically motivated to keep learning more, to move through the levels!
The Speech Sound Pics (SSP) Approach is a solution for improved (SoR informed) literacy outcomes but centres around the science of learning and is specifically designed to embrace neurodiversity.
Miss Emma MA SEN Specialist SpLD Teacher and Trainer
Your Systematic Phonics Teaching Partner!
SSP Spelling Piano app for ipads
50% off when 20 or more ordered in the Schools Apple Manager
A fantastic resource for parents with tablets!
Speech to Print Phonics
Speedy Solo or Paired Code Mapping with
Code Levels Texts
Decoding & Encoding
Decodable Reader Guide
Code Level Video Lesson in the ICRWY app.
- Consolidate previous learning & learn more
correspondences each day
Coding Poster Activities
Phonics and HFWs.
12 - 15 mins
Teacher monitors progress and offers
1:1 support where needed
Send home High Frequency Words (Code Mapped) - ideally children use the parent app.
Use the app in class at least once a week.
400+ high frequency words in Reception
SSP Teachers are going to need a bigger box:-)
sut could be pronounced 108 ways, for example. Readers know this.
Over 500 Code Level Readers have been selected, from various publishers. They align with the SSP explicit grapheme teaching order. Decodable books are only 'decodable' if the child knows that code. We offer a range, to make sure children have lots of practice blending target graphemes These only cover about 100 GPCs however. More is needed to transition to being 'readers'. Hundreds more 'exception' words are also needed - especially if we want children writing early. We can't constrain the HFWs introduced to just those found in decodable readers. How would they learn to write them? These words make up a HUGE percentage of our written language.
Because of technology our students have the phonemic awareness and code knowledge to read AND SPELL over 400 high frequency words before the end of Reception.
Training included in the app
Might the recent list of DfE validated Systematic Synthetic Phonics (SSP) programs prevent advancements in technology that could more effectively meet the needs of young readers in KS1?
Should the DfE reconsider their stance, to be more SoR informed with regards to facilitating differentiation through innovative technology?
‘We are living in a digital world with technology transforming the way we live our lives – both at home and in the workplace. But we must never think about technology for its own sake. Technology is an enabler and an enhancer. For too long in education, technology has been seen as something that adds to a teacher’s workload rather than helps to ease’. (DfE 2019)
Increased accessibility to digital technologies in schools has meant that teachers have been provided with alternatives to teaching that have paved the way for possible changes to their pedagogical practices (Hedberg, 2011). Teachers have described how digital technology can facilitate differentiated learning, and how it can “improve grades, retain students’ focus and even build the confidence of many children” (Williams, 2018) Within the Speech Sound Pics (SSP) Approach, used across Australia, digital technologies are used in reception classrooms to facilitate self-directed learning of lower order, “closed” knowledge; a practice that frees teachers to not only more easily track individual learning of target grapheme recognition and blending skills, but to spend time with individual children who might otherwise not get the 1:1 attention they need. Research results and teaching practice indicate that the best instruction is explicit, systematic, sequential, active, and engaging. Effective teaching emphasizes discovery and understanding and is aided by frequent opportunities to practise spelling, writing, and reading skills in meaningful contexts. The SSP technology offers this to the children, with the teacher taking on a supervisory role, able to step back and observe the learning journey of each child.
Approximately 30 minutes per day, four days a week, is spent cumulatively learning the 90+ commonly used phoneme to grapheme correspondences within four (phonics) Code Levels, and 400+ high-frequency words that may include 1 or more correspondence not taught within the Code Levels. Code Level texts offer students practise blending the graphemes within meaningful text which, includes these high-frequency words. The children also write sentences using the code that they know and explore new correspondences. The aim is to finish Phase 2 around the middle of Year One, at which time children are in the ‘self-teaching’ phase (Share 1995). During this period children also explore the “complicated constellation of skills and knowledge that impact reading comprehension” (Cervetti et al.2020) The learning of basic phonics skills is covered within the daily half-hour routine, allowing for more time to be spent on comprehension strategy instruction, multifaceted language interventions, explicit instruction in key vocabulary, spelling strategies and text discussions.
The first 3 or 4 weeks of term 1 are spent developing phonemic awareness, to be able to isolate, segment and blend the phonemes that they will map to graphemes to ‘kick-start’ the learning to read process in Phase 2. This early phase, even though only lasting a few days, is essential as the teacher uses activities to ascertain which children are at risk of reading difficulties and to get them thinking about and listening for the smallest sounds in spoken words.
Learning the most common grapheme to phoneme correspondences is considered a constrained skill (Pfost, Hattie, Dörfler, & Artelt, 2014) given the closed, correct-or-incorrect nature of this knowledge. This knowledge of the alphabetic code is critical in the development of reading and spelling. Traditional drill and practice are an effective avenue through which to acquire and retain closed knowledge in memory (Joseph, Eveleigh, Konrad, Neef, & Volpe, 2012; Musti-Rao, Lo, & Plati, 2014. The SSP ‘Code Level video lessons’ provide a method of engaging learners in self-directed drill and practice, at their ‘Code Level’ and students then practice and consolidate skills with the SSP Spelling Piano app and work poster. This work poster is a plastic laminated A3 sheet that is written on with a whiteboard pen, and then rubbed off ready to be used the next day. Spaced repetition is utilised, with each student independently working through the four ‘Code Levels’ at their pace. A fully differentiated learning environment is made possible because of the technology; something that a teacher cannot do when teaching the whole class, or even within small group instruction. Indeed, it could be considered an ineffective use of teacher time when such a practice may be facilitated via other means (Musti-Rao et al., 2014). Within each Code, Level is a group of commonly used phoneme to grapheme pairings, and each Code Level word only consists of these combinations. For example, the Green Code Level only consists of graphemes s (s) a (æ) t (t) p (p) i (I) n (n) and words could therefore include sat, ant, tin, pin, Stan, Nan, pants etc
Children also use technology to learn the commonly used words alongside these commonly used graphemes. These high-frequency words often have one or more grapheme to phoneme correspondences not taught within the four Code levels. For example, the children might learn within the Green Code Level that the grapheme ‘a’ can represent the phoneme / æ/ but will need to also understand the different mappings required to read and write more complex sentences eg The ant was in a pan. ði ænt wɒz ɪn ə pæn (IPA symbols) Using technology children can segment and blend Code Level and High-Frequency Words and consolidate blending skills using ‘Code level’ readers. Because of technology, they move through the grapheme teaching progression together, as a class, but everyone is learning at their pace – able to take the time they need to secure the required knowledge into long term memory.
This is reflective of Stern (2014) and Flewitt et al. (2014) who submit that a benefit of using digital devices is that they can offer opportunities for self-directed, independent, and individualised learning within a visually appealing context. Being able to work at their pace, knowing what they are learning and being able to evaluate their own progress leads to intrinsic motivation and learning outcomes. Self-regulated learning is known to have a strong positive impact on student achievement (Hattie, 2009).
Technology is also used within Phase 1, with 30 step by step lessons offered in the I Can Read Without You app; also bridging the gap between learning at school and in the classroom (parents can download the app) Children who lack phonemic awareness skills do not understand what letters represent. Because speech sounds are abstract in nature, this is a hard concept for children to grasp. Within the Speech Sound Pics (SSP) Approach this difficulty is overcome within Phase 1 using ‘Duck Hands, Speech Sound Lines and Numbers’ and the ‘Speech Sound Monsters’, which all have their own English Speech Sound. They sit together, from left to right, to build words. Children learn to ‘follow the Monster Sounds to say the word!’. These can also be used as Speech Sound Pictographs and embedded onto letters, showing children the ‘sounds’ the letter/s represent in each word. Because they do not ‘pair’ with letters until in a word this makes ongoing and cumulative learning of the written code easier, even when they move from commonly used phoneme to grapheme combinations to the whole code, as shown on their Speech Sound Wall.
Shallow (transparent) orthographies, also called phonemic orthographies, have a one-to-one relationship between its graphemes and phonemes, which is understandably easier to learn (and teach!) Within English there are numerous ways to represent each speech sound (eg 14 ways to represent the /s/ speech sound) and graphemes can represent numerous sounds (eg the letter s can represent at least 3 different speech sounds) These are displayed on the SSP Speech Sound Wall, within the Spelling Clouds. In opaque orthographies, such as English, spelling-to-sound correspondences can be very ambiguous (Frost, 2012) Children with limited understanding of the meanings of the words of spoken language will be impaired in their ability to correctly pronounce words, even when only the commonly used combinations are used, for example, they may see /ow/ and fail to differentiate between the pronunciation of tow and town, even when the words are in context. They will be impaired in their ability to derive meaning from text, even for words they have correctly identified and pronounced.
Another benefit of using the SSP technology to teach phonics is that many teachers have not received training in phonetics or have the necessary understanding of the linguistic units of speech and print to be able to apply the designing differentiated teaching activities and give students corrective feedback. By observing the step-by-step lessons themselves, teachers are being taught the structure of the English writing system and its relationship to sounds and meaning. They learn the English speech sound system and develop a knowledge of morphemic patterns such as prefixes, suffixes, and roots, as well as knowledge of grammatical and text structures.
The school version of the app now includes training, however, teachers can even use the Speedy Six Spelling program lessons on the whiteboard, from the ICRWY school app, to check that they themselves understand the phoneme to grapheme mapping of the target words, and the universally accepted mapping, as seen when transcribing words using the IPA. Differences in pronunciation are discussed; dialectical differences add another dimension to the written code that is not discussed within commercial systematic synthetic phonics programs. With adequate knowledge, teachers can proactively address these issues. Although there is a huge focus on teaching children phonics systematically, less attention has been paid to the issue of whether teachers, themselves understand how the sounds in spoken language map with the letters in words, and the theoretical and scientific underpinnings for understanding literacy development. Teachers cannot teach well what they do not understand themselves (Moats 2009) The technology we are developing seeks to not only support all learners but also the learning needs of parents, carers, teacher aides and teachers. Some parents and carers may even learn to read alongside their children.
Data and feedback collected from SSP teachers suggest that this technology enables the children to learn more of the common ‘letter sounds’ in a shorter period of time than when the teacher was ‘teaching from the front’. Furthermore, they report that neurodiverse learners are more engaged while learning with technology. Teachers need to know where students are in their phonics learning so they can move them beyond this point. Providing “whole class” instruction is unlikely to accomplish this. None of the currently ‘validated systematic synthetic phonics program developers have included technology in this way. Guidance notes mandate that the program ‘be built around direct teaching sessions, with extensive teacher-child interaction and involve a multi-sensory approach. The programme should include guidance on how direct teaching sessions can be adapted for online delivery (live or recorded)
Also, ‘Where computer-based resources are included, these should support or supplement direct teaching by the teacher, but not replace it.’ (DfE January 2022)
Due to the nature of the instruction, mandated to be predominantly teacher-led, it is unclear how the highest number of UK children will move from the grapheme-phoneme correspondences included in the programs, to read ‘authentic texts’. In 2018/2019 27% of children were unable to read at expected levels at the end of primary school. Could reading levels improve if the technology used by so many Australian teachers was used in the UK? Are the needs of the neurodiverse students in the class being met?
Only 85 or so of these GPCs are taught within the currently validated commercial programs, and only these are tested at the end of Year 1. A ‘print to speech’ ie ‘grapheme to phoneme’ approach is taken within commercial synthetic phonics programmes. And yet, as observed by Moats ‘One of the most fundamental flaws found in almost all phonics programs, including traditional ones, is that they teach the code backwards. That is, they go from letter to sound instead of from sound to letter. Such programs disregard the fact that speech evolved at least 30,000 years before writing. Alphabetic writing was invented to represent speech; speech was not learned from reading. Following the logic of history, we should teach awareness of the sound system (phonology) and anchor letters to it. The print-to-sound (conventional phonics) approach leaves gaps, invites confusion, and creates inefficiencies.’
Children learning with the Speech Sound Pics (SSP) Approach learn the code from speech to print; they listen to the sounds in words and understand that the group of graphemes being learned will map for the words in that code level, but this might not occur within other words. That is, they understand that English has a deep orthography, but can learn about it systematically and logically, using the SSP technology.
As such, Australian Speech Sound Pics (SSP) teachers report that more children meet the expectation for ‘reading’ before the end of their reception year, rather than at the end of year 1, as they are not constrained by the instructional method expected by the DfE with regards to synthetic phonics. For example, a primary school using the Jolly Phonics synthetic phonics program in South Australia took part in the trial Phonics Screener Check in South Australia, and only 51% passed. They trialled this new ‘tech supported’ approach to teaching phonics and the following year 81% passed. In 2020 NAPLAN (standardized) testing the school had the highest performance score in the state (overall) ‘massive’ improvement over historical average (2015 – 2018), big improvement 2019 -2021 (no NAPLAN in 2020), in top 3 schools in the state for percentage of students in yrs 3 – 7 in High Bands for Reading. Spelling improvement is also shown This use of technology to teach the common GPSs quickly seems worthy of further study.
Another relevant finding by Hattie in his ‘Visible Learning’ research is that the proportion of teacher talk to listening needs to change to less talk and more listening and observing student learning. Most teachers do not perceive they are dominating lesson time with their talk, but they are, as is shown by video analysis and class observations. This ‘less teaching, more learning’ approach, used within the SSP Phase 2 routine, is an effective way to keep children engaged and on-task and because students move through the phonics learning more easily, teachers can devote more time to engaging children in tasks that require more open-ended, contextualized, higher-order thinking such as reading comprehension and writing skills.
As an observer of learning, they are also in a better position to recognise learning difficulties early.
Technology is used within a learning routine that seeks to help reception teachers, responsible for the academic, emotional, and social needs of young children with different background knowledge and interests in the same classroom and can ensure that foundational reading and spelling skills are developed for all. There is more time available for implicit learnings of the mappings of the orthography (i.e., how spellings are likely to be pronounced) with learning from explicit instruction that accelerates implicit learning. When integrated within a holistic literacy program, phonics applications such as the SSP I Can Read Without You (ICRWY) and SSP Spelling Piano apps can be used in classrooms to more effectively facilitate students’ independent, self-directed learning of letter-sound knowledge and may also offer a unique way to deliver teacher training;
In 2018, the Education Secretary called upon the technology industry to demonstrate support for “innovative teaching practices …backed up by evidence of the impact they are having on schools, colleges and universities” (Department for Education, 2018). We hope that this message does not conflict with the message also being given to UK teachers by the DfE with regards to how children should learn phonics.
Cervetti, G.N., Pearson, P.D., Palincsar, A.S., Afflerbach, P., Kendeou, P., Biancarosa, G., Higgs, J., Fitzgerald, M.S., & Berman, A.I. (2020). How the Reading for Understanding Initiative’s Research Complicates the Simple View of Reading Invoked in the Science of Reading. Reading Research Quarterly, 55(S1), S161– S172.
Department for Education, 2018. New technology to spearhead classroom revolution https://www.gov.uk/government/news/new-technology-to-spearhead-classroom-revolution
Department for Education, 2019. EdTech Strategy marks ‘new era’ for schools https://www.gov.uk/government/news/edtech-strategy-marks-new-era-for-schools
DfE Guidance: Validation of systematic synthetic phonics programmes: supporting documentation January 2022.
Flewitt, R., Messer, D., & Kucirkova, N. (2014). New directions for early literacy in a digital age: The iPad. Journal of Early Childhood Literacy, 1-22.
Frost, R (2002) Towards a universal model of reading. Behav Brain Sci. 35(5):263-79.
Hattie, J. (2009). Visible Learning: A Synthesis of 800+ Meta-Analyses on Achievement. London: Routledge.
Hedberg, J. G. (2011). Towards a Disruptive Pedagogy: Changing Classroom Practice with Technologies and Digital Content. Educational Media International, 48(1), 1-16.
Joseph, L., Eveleigh, E., Konrad, M., Neef, N., & Volpe, R. (2012). Comparison of the Efficiency of Two Flashcard Drill Methods on Children’s Reading Performance. Journal of Applied School Psychology, 28(4), 317-337.
Moats, L. C. (2009). Still wanted: teachers with knowledge of language. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 42 (5), 387-391.
Musti-Rao, S., Lo, Y. Y., & Plati, E. (2014). Using an iPad® App to Improve Sight Word Reading Fluency for At-Risk First Graders. Remedial and Special Education, 36(3), 154-166.
Pfost, M., Hattie, J., Dörfler, T., & Artelt, C. (2014). Individual Differences in Reading Development: A Review of 25 Years of Empirical Research on Matthew Effects in Reading. Review of Educational Research, 84(2), 203-244.
Share DL. Phonological recoding and self-teaching: sine qua non of reading acquisition. Cognition. 1995 May;55(2):151-218; discussion 219-26.
doi: 10.1016/0010-0277(94)00645-2. PMID: 7789090.
Stern, J. (2014). Digital classroom magazines: Design considerations for young learners. Paper presented at the CHI’14 Extended Abstracts on Human Factors in Computing Systems. https://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2559206.2579412
Williams, C., 2018. Enter the classroom of 2018 [WWW Document]. App Store. URL https://itunes.apple.com/gb/story/id1427202128
Speech Sound Pics (SSP)
Code Mapping Case Studies
Note the results!
However, in order to be validated, we would have to shift to instruction being teacher-led
ie stop using the technology that offers the children a differentiated learning experience.
At least 20% would struggle to read independently before the end of grade 1.
Guidance notes mandate that the program ‘be built around direct teaching sessions, with extensive teacher-child interaction and involve a multi-sensory approach. The programme should include guidance on how direct teaching sessions can be adapted for online delivery (live or recorded)
(SSP teachers wouldn't need to adapt, eg during school closures, just ensure parents have access to the app, and Coding Posters sent home)
Also, ‘Where computer-based resources are included, these should support or supplement direct teaching by the teacher, but not replace it.’ (DfE January 2022)
No reasons are given to support this directive.
****** Primary School is a public primary school with an enrolment of 409 students. We have a high population of students with English as an Additional Language/Dialect.
Speech Sound Pics (SSP Code Mapping) is our chosen approach for the teaching of reading and spelling and has had a significant impact on the learning outcomes of students from Reception to Year 7.
In 2018 our school was using Jolly Phonics consistently across our Junior Primary team. 2018 was the first year that we participated in the Phonics Screening Check. 51% of our Year 1 students passed the test, and about a third of students were being identified for intervention.
In Term 4 2018 we trialled an Intervention group with Speech Sound Pics (SSP) and measured a noticeable improvement in building knowledge of phoneme/grapheme correspondence, blending and decoding skills.
Our poor Phonics Screening Check results in August 2018, provided the impetus for us to investigate other programs and approaches. After comparing several different approaches we chose SSP, and implemented the approach across our Reception to Year 2 classes from the start of 2019. We also ran Year 3-7 intervention groups using this approach.
In 2019 our Phonics Screening Check results significantly improved, with 85% passing. We also used the Screening Check to test our Year 2s. Whereas only 51% had passed as Year 1 students, in 2019 88% of that same cohort passed as Year 2s.
In 2020, even with the impact of COVID-19 which affected attendance for several weeks, 87% of Year 1 students passed and 92% of Year 2s passed.
Over the past couple of years we have been using the Phonics Screening Check with all of our Reception, Year 1 and Year 2 students. Some of our best success stories relate to students with specific learning needs and learning disabilities. One student with a significant language disorder scored zero for the Phonics Screening Check as a Reception student. The following year with Tier 3 intervention support using SSP, the same student scored 30 out of 40.
Running Records are still mandated by our system for Year 1 and 2 students. There has been improvement in this data also in terms of the percentage of students meeting the Standard of Educational Achievement:
The following graphs show our relatively high results when compared to state, partnership and like-schools.
Impact has also been measured on the learning of Year 3-7 students involved in the SSP Intervention groups. 0.9 Effect Size growth was measured in pre- and post-test results in 2019, using both PAT-R and Words Their Way tests. In 2020 the average Effect Size of the students involved in the SSP Intervention groups was 0.7.
We have also noticed a significant improvement in students’ abilities to segment sounds in words, and to decode words.
One student, a Year 5 diagnosed with ASD, who has not responded to previous intervention programs, has begun to build his knowledge of phoneme/grapheme correspondences and can now decode and encode at the SSP yellow code level (approximately Level 15 PM Benchmarks).
Another Year 5 student who had also not responded to previous reading/spelling instruction and intervention programs, is now able to read texts, coping without issue in the Year 5 Reading test of the recent National Assessment Program: Literacy and Numeracy.
Yet another student, diagnosed with ASD and intellectual impairment has responded to SSP Tier 3 intervention, and can now read simple texts and write simple sentences.
Perceptions of a Year 6 student who has been involved in SSP Intervention group, and is now confidently engaging in the class reading and spelling program:
What have you learnt from using the SSP Approach?
How to use sounds
Helps get somewhat of an idea of spelling patterns
Try a few different spelling options to see which is correct – based on the sound pics I know
Some are still tricky, I only usually get a schwa wrong
What are your goals before moving on to high school at the end of the year?
To read more fluently
Spell more trickier words with ease and without having to write down the options
Is there anything else you would like to say?
When reading harder novels, before I would skip trickier words. Now I always have a go, and nearly always get it correct. Sometimes it’s just the pronunciation that I get wrong.
Training and Mentoring
We have been able to access the support of a mentor teacher who has had previous experience with the SSP approach. She led professional learning in the approach and modelled sessions in classes.
We also hosted a Workshop with Emma Hartnell-Baker in May 2019, which most of our teaching and support staff attended.
Further training has been accessed through the SSP website and online videos, SSP social media connections/support, and SSP printed resources.
Parent workshops have also been provided for our community, which have been well attended. We have received very favourable feedback from parents about their children’s reading and spelling abilities, especially from parents who have had older siblings go through the school prior to the inception of SSP.
Examples of some of the student comments:
I am very grateful for this wonderful learning invention. Sometimes I struggle to use SSP in work but most of the time it is a great aid.
I think SSP has changed my life and I really think it has made a big difference to the school (in a good way).
I like how it is fun and enjoyable compared to normal spelling lessons.
SSP helps me feel and be more confident with my spelling words and sentences. It allows me to visualise what each sound in each word can possibly be.
It is helping me get 2-3 years improvement in a few months and it is making me want to read and practise spelling.
It has made me spell difficult words or made me get them very close to spelling them right.
I enjoy reading more now because I can just keep on reading along because I just have to do one quick thing and then I just pronounce the word correctly. Instead of hesitating and not doing anything about the word I now use SSP.
I think that SSP is very useful to me and it has improved my understanding of words.
It can explain how spelling and sounds are related for people who aren’t confident with their spelling
I found SSP very helpful with my spelling I think something that really helped was the key rings even though the upper primary didn’t use the key rings I found them very helpful because I used it with my tutor.
SSP has taught me the patterns of spelling and how to spell things properly.
SSP helps me remember some words that I have forgotten, while further helping me and other people on how to pronounce them. Since some people come from different parts of the world, pronunciations of some words are different. This helps people remember to pronounce the word and remember the word correctly, according to the Australian English.
I can spell words I never thought I could spell so writing a page is much easier.
I can read books that I wanted to read that have hard words in them.
SSP has been great and has boosted my confidence with spelling, reading and writing.
I would like to say that SSP has helped my learning, education and vocabulary a lot.
SSP improved my learning.
It helped my work a lot and I love it.
Spelling is easier now!
Differences in Teaching and Learning
SSP has enabled our teaching and support team to align with research informed practices. It has provided us with the ‘how’ as we have learnt about the Science of Reading through Professional Development provided by our Department for Education.
We are now using a Speech to Print approach, which systematically introduces phoneme/grapheme correspondences. Both the simple and complex code are introduced and practised through regular routines which are differentiated depending on the knowledge and skill level of individual students.
Spaced retrieval practice is built into classroom routines, so that individual mastery is developed of each code level before moving on. Through repeated routines students a