What is Code Mapping® - the unique 'phoneme to grapheme' display design element filed as an Innovation Patent in 2017?
Speech Sound Pics (SSP) Approach teachers have seen Miss Emma develop this approach over the past 10 years.
SSP teachers have been telling us about an AU publisher who is now copying her innovative work.
SSP teachers use Coded Sight Words every day - as shown here in the SSP Monster Mapping app
Apparently, without examination, this unique design that I created, is not protected. As the SSP program, resources and the software being tested for the Code Mapping of large pieces of text is central to the SSP Approach that is, of course, our next step. Pretty shocking to find this out!
But let's hope everyone does the right thing, and recognises who created it, and respects that. I'll do a timeline to show when designed and how widely used. For example this 2014 video showing my Code Mapped decoable readers.
Would you like to Code Map® text you use? Within decodable readers, or phonics teaching materials?
Contact us to licence the Code Mapping® design, and also to have your text correctly Code Mapped ® using the Software.
Code Mapping and Monster Mapping are easily understood by those who cannot yet read and spell, and they learn to read and spell quickly using Miss Emma's methods
It is adults who find this much harder to understand - those who can already read.
They are often 'blinded by the letters' and have been misled by phonics training.
Use the ICRWY Lessons so that the children hear Miss Emma explaining everything.
Updated from a 2014 clip. Code Mapping® was introduced to Australian schools in around 2012 and Miss Emma toured the country visiting schools, to introduce her unique way of showing the way we 'talk on paper'.
You have seen me 'Code Map' for over ten years, which is the term I use when asking children to underline and number the graphemes, using their 'Duck Hands®' (trademarked term)
But the design filed as an Innovation Patent refers to a specific element, as seen in the hard copy and student video resources. I have used this design to 'Code Map®' publically available and widely used open-source resources used to teach 'sight words' in order to align teaching methods with the science (Letters and Sounds, Oxford, Fry, Dolch etc)
So the resources SHOW how each word is segmented, according to the phonemes, as would be transcribed using an IPA 'translation' site like tophonetics.com There is NO specific focus on letters that are 'vowels' or represent 'vowel sounds'. The first grapheme in the first word of a piece of text is in black, and the students see the words 'code mapped' in order to 'follow the sounds to say the words'. The mapping continues, ie the first grapheme in each word isn't black, it is colour coded in accordance to previous word on the page.
Only 2 words in the English language can't be code mapped. These might be your true 'sight words' to be memorised. The phonemes can be identified (the word 'sounded out') but those sounds do not have letter/s to hook to, which make any logical sense when analysing all English words. The children talk about the words 'one' and 'once' (shown in red) and refer to the Speech Sound King who was in a bad mood that day. In our 'story' the Speech Sound King created the code, and stores the mapping in his 'Code Mapping Book' - the children carry them everywhere (you might call them dictionaries)
I recently saw a post that appeared to be using the Code Mapping design, to show this segmentation. However, it appears the person had colour coded the 'vowel and consonant sounds'. Lots do that. So in the word 'fly' the f and l were the same colour.
I do not do (or like) that.
Now - my error - I did not realise that when filing the Innovation Patent that this would not protect my design from 'infringers' without getting it examined. So that is what I will do. It's vital, as this is at the heart of the Speech Sound Pics (SSP) Approach!
However - even if I had never filed - anyone using phonics in Australia has likely seen my Code Mapped resources, and know of this design as 'Miss Emma's work'.
I created a design that utilises the IPA to segment English words and colour code the sequence of graphemes (letter or group of letters that represent IPA symbols). The Code Mapping software being built will show a word, sentence or page of text ‘Code Mapped’. From the first word to the last, every grapheme is shown in alternating black/grey colours. I have designed this specific way of ‘Code Mapping’ to be as unobtrusive to the reader as possible. The reader can choose to see the words Code Mapped, to show the segmentation, or switch the Code Mapping off to see text as it would appear in a book (black).
It is anticipated in future that the reader (or teacher) can choose the ‘level’ of grey colour, to have the segmentation highly contrasting or just barely contrasting.
I intend to research the effect different shading levels has on struggling readers.
The design can be licensed for use by other users. I will be able to Code Map whole books for them if they want! Colour coding the grapheme segmentation in words helps struggling readers (demonstrated by schools with regards to their 'before and after' data, especially those with identified phonemic awareness deficits) to see the segmentation. It removes the necessity of ‘imagining’ or ‘remembering’ where the segmentation lies. This visual enhancement quickly shows the brain the exact one-to-one mapping for each sound to letter/s in the word. When watching the videos the students also HEAR the mapped phonemes.
David Kilpatrick explains, “Orthographic mapping proposes that we use the pronunciations of words that are already stored in long-term memory as the anchoring points for the orthographic sequences (letters) used to represent those pronunciations.” This visual enhancement quickly shows the brain the exact one-to-one mapping for each sound to letter/s in the word. Furthermore, I propose that this facilitates 'self-teaching' as outlined by David Share and his “Self-Teaching Hypothesis” especially when students use the videos. As seen in the Sight Words Done Differently videos students as young as 3 years old are looking at 'Code Mapped ®' text, can see the segmentation, and can hear the graphemes articulated in order and then blended. According to Kilpatrick with good phonemic awareness it only takes 1 - 4 exposures to store words (and be able to retrieve them later) Then they apply this knowledge when WRITING the words, not just reading them again.
Letter NAMES are not used. It is the mapping of speech sounds to letter/s that leads to this mental process given the label of 'Orthographic Mapping'. It is simply a way to describe what happens when we read without conscious thought. No-one argues that this is what is needed - the arguments arise when discussing HOW to get them to this stage, that could be termed 'Orthographic Mapping'.
An important distinction is that 'Code Mapped®' words aren’t colour coded based on vowel and/or consonant ‘sounds’. The words have an alternating colour code to show how the alphabetic letters represent each of the sounds in the word in order. If a word is shown as having black/grey/black/grey/black then we know there are five sounds in the word, we know the word is represented by five IPA symbols. Each alternating group of letter or letters represents each sound in the word in order.
The Speech Sound Monsters are an alternative representation for a phonetic symbol, so for this word we know there will be five Speech Sound Monsters. When we know how many sounds are in a word, we can struggle to link them to the correct letters in the word. A alternating colour code shows us which letter or group of letters represents each sound, in order. The third colour (blue) is used to signify the sound pic sandwich (split digraph), especially when there is no room to show the semi circle/upside down arch that links the two vowel letters. The phoneme monsters give them the information about how to PRONOUNCE the word. So Code Mapping shows where the pictures of the sounds (graphemes) are in the words, and Monster Mapping shows them how to say each Sound Pic. Without phonemic awareness the student will be unable to blend those sounds. Phonemic awareness is key to everything, as I have been talking about for over a decade.
It can be argued that the science of reading indicates that we do not learn to read by analysing why sounds are where they are in words (syllable and phonics rules) even though the brain looks for patterns. Programs that operate under this misconception will colour code vowel sounds and consonant sounds because they are important for their rule based instructions. The science of reading has proven that proficient phonemic awareness and proficient letter/sound knowledge is what is essential. The Speech Sound Pics (SSP) Approach 'Code Mapping' technique and design concentrate on ensuring readers reach proficiency in both phonemic awareness and letter/sound knowledge. However, we are very aware of how few phoneme to grapheme correspondences are covered within the four 'Code Levels' (around 100 or so) compared to how many there actually are in the English language (as seen in the Monster Bank cards, where we display all of these correspondences).
The Code Levels are used to introduce concepts, through explicit teaching, however other activities and resources facilitate 'self-teaching'. We speak of Code Mapping becoming the child's inner-teacher, and adults around them as guides.
Segmenting words into phonemes should be central to reading and spelling program or approach. It is the only way to ensure the needs of the highest number of students are likely to be met.
'Code Mapping' however, with regards to the design patent, as seen here, is very specific and unique to the Speech Sound Pics Approach.
BEd Hons. MA Special Educational Needs. Doctoral Student, University of Reading.
What is Code Mapping®? What does the patent refer to?
I created and have used the design I created for dyslexic learners, for over a decade. It's why I filed. However I apparently also need to have it examined. Alrighty then!
But surely anyone who has a clearly established technique, unique to them, should expect a level of professional respect from others, and not be told, more or less, that if not legally protected I am going to copy it and make money from it? That's so not cool.
What's next? Copying 'Duck Hands'?
Fortunately for publishers wanting to use Code Mapped text in their books and teaching resources, they will soon be able to either use the Code Mapping app to transcribe words into the contrasting colours or ask that whole books are Code Mapped for their audience. The design credited and they know they have correctly Code mapped text.
Note that regardless of 'Patent' status and whether it can be protected, there is a Copyright sign on my work. Once published it is important that others do not ...copy it!